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Polycystic Ovarian Disease


Polycystic Ovarian Disease

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), not to be confused with PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease), is a common hormonal disorder that affects people with ovaries, typically during their reproductive years. PCOS can cause a range of symptoms and health issues. It is characterized by:

  1. Irregular Menstrual Periods: Women with PCOS often have irregular or infrequent menstrual cycles. Some may also experience heavy bleeding.

  2. Excess Androgen: Androgens are male hormones that females also produce, but in smaller amounts. In PCOS, there's an excess production of androgens, which can lead to symptoms like acne, excessive hair growth (hirsutism), and male-pattern baldness.

  1. Polycystic Ovaries: The ovaries may become enlarged and contain small collections of fluid (follicles) which can be seen on ultrasound. These are often referred to as cysts, but they're not true cysts.

  2. Fertility Issues: PCOS is a common cause of infertility due to irregular ovulation or lack of ovulation.

  3. Insulin Resistance: Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, which can lead to higher levels of insulin in the blood. This can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  4. Weight Gain: Weight gain or difficulty losing weight is common in women with PCOS, and obesity can exacerbate PCOS symptoms.

The exact cause of PCOS is not known, but it likely involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There's no cure for PCOS, but its symptoms can be managed through lifestyle changes, medications, and sometimes surgery.

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